Jodhpur City

1. Jodhpur City

i. Introduction :-
Jodhpur, popularly known as “Sun City” is also referred as the “Blue City” due to the light blue painted houses around the Mehrangarh Fort which is fortified by a wall with several gates. Jodhpur is the second largest city of Rajasthan; It is centrally situated at the distance of 335 kms from state capital, Jaipur and 200 kms from the city of Ajmer. Jodhpur is a popular tourist destination, featuring many palaces, forts and temples, set in the stark landscape of the That Desert. The city has expanded extensively outside the wall city over the past several decades. Due to the rapid urbanization, like other big cities of India, Jodhpur city is experiencing the problems of urbanization. Acute shortage of water supply, poor urban services, proliferating slums and shanty colonies underline realities of transformation in Jodhpur. Growing dissatisfaction among the people and deteriorating service delivery mechanisms is a sign of struggling urban lifestyle in Jodhpur city.
ii. Topography & Drainage
Relief structures are representative of the topographical conditions of the region. Jodhpur district divided into three distinct physiographical units, namely, the alluvial plains. Escarpments, Ridges and Sand dunes. The western & north-western part of district is characterized by sand dunes. There is no perennial river in the district. However, there are two rivers in the district i.e. Luni and Mithri rivers, the Luni river, which flows in the district near Bilara. Main source of irrigation besides rainwater is wells and tube wells. The major and important minerals are available in the district is sand stone, lime stone, building stone, stone slab, flagstones, quartz & clays of various colours, dolomite and red color sandstone of the Jodhpur district is very famous and found in abundance.

2. Location and Connectivity

i. Location of the City
Jodhpur, one of the largest districts is situated in the western part of the Rajasthan state. The average elevation of the city from mean sea level is 250-300 meter. It is situated between to at north latitude and between to at east longitude, covering geographical area of 22850 sq. kms. It is bounded in the east by Nagaur district, West by Jaisalmer district, North by Bikaner districts and Barmer as well as Pali on Southern side.
ii. Physical Linkage
The Jodhpur city has good connectivity with the surrounding settlements anti major cities of India, by Road, Rail and Air transport. The NH-65, NH-112 and NH-114 passes through the city. Jodhpur is the divisional headquarter of the North-western railway and important railway junction in western Rajasthan. The city is connected with railways to major Indian cities like Delhi, Mumbai, Kolkata, Chennai, Bangalore, Trivandrum, Pune, Kota, Kanpur, Barelly, Hyderabad, Ahmedabad, Indore, Bhopal, Jabalpur, Dhanbad, Guwahati, Nagpur, Lucknow and Jaipur.

3. Industrial Corridor nearby Jodhpur District

The DFC passes through Phulera-Ajmer-Marwar. About 58% area of the state falls within the influence area of the DMIC (Delhi Mumbai Industrial Corridor). Based on the strengths of specific regions across the state, five development nodes are identified in the influence area of DMIC. Jodhpur district is also in the influence zone of the Node-11; Pali-Marwar Industrial Area of the DMIC. In terms of prominence of economic activity.

4. Climate

The Climate of Jodhpur is extremely hot and arid. The summer season is from April to June followed by rainy season from July to mid-September. The winter season is from November to March. The annual average rainfall is 366 millimeters, but this is not uniform throughout the year. The City receives most of the rain during monsoon reason. The temperature shoots up to in summer and drops to in winter.
i. Temperature
Jodhpur, one of the largest districts is situated in the western part of the Rajasthan state. The average elevation of the city from mean sea level is 250-300 meter. It is situated between to at north latitude and between to at east longitude, covering geographical area of 22850 sq. kms. It is bounded in the east by Nagaur district, West by Jaisalmer district, North by Bikaner districts and Barmer as well as Pali on Southern side.
Month wise Mean daily Maximum and Minimum Temperature
Temperature
January 24.6 9.5
February 27.9 12
March 33.3 17.1
April 38.3 22.4
May 41.6 27.3
June 40.1 28.5
July 35.7 26.8
August 33.2 25.2
September 34.7 24.1
October 35.7 19.6
November 31.4 13.9
December 26.7 10.7
Annual 33.6 19.8
ii. Rainfall
The average annual rainfall in the city is 351 millimeters. About 80% of the rainfall is received during the south-west monsoon season. The variation in the annual rainfall from year to years is very large in the year 2007 the average rainfall was 204 mm, whereas in the next year it was 482.4 mm. The table given below depicts that in very consecutive year there are variations in rainfall.
Rainfall Amount and Distribution
Year 2007 2008 2009 2010 2012
Rainfall (mm) 204 156 500 314 450

Source : India Metrological Department (Ministry of Earth Science, GOI)

iii. Wind Direction
In the summer season the winds are predominant and generally moderate during rest of the year. During the winter season winds blow from northerly or northwesterly directions. By March southwesterly and westerly winds begin and these become predominant in the summer months. Wind direction mostly between south and west during the period June to September. Prevailing hot wind in is an important phenomena in summer, which is locally called as Loo.

5. Economic Profile

The industrial development in Jodhpur has led to the economic growth of the city. Jodhpur is the third largest industrialized district of the Rajasthan state. The Handicraft industry has been the largest industry in the city. Many workers are in manufacturing of motor parts, textiles, metal utensils, bicycles and ink, handloom and sport goods. Lot of cottage industries are involved in manufacturing of glass bangles, cutlery, carpet, marble products and traditional items of tourist interests such as Tie and Die textile products. There were 6806 industrial units in 2000, which are increased to 6983 in the year 2001. Total area under industrial use in 2001 was 1968 acres which is 12.62% of the developed area. RIICO have developed different industrial areas in Jodhpur like Basani, Boronada, Mandore, Bhagat ki Kothi and Pal.

About 6983 Industrial Units registered with the District Industry Centre are providing employment to about 29224 persons. Total number of industrial units/establishments and number of workers engaged in these industrial units are mentioned below :-
Types of Industries
S.N. Type of Industries Units No of Workers
1 Agricultural based industries 642 3260
2 Forest based industries 573 2118
3 Dairy and Cattle feed product industries 1242 2769
4 Cotton based industries 1640  
5 Chemical based industries 436 2143
6 Engineering based industries 1094 6536
7 Building materials based industries 402 3010
8 Others 954 3767
Total 6983 29224
Government & Semi Government offices
1 Centre govt. Officers 165 27787
2 State government officers 324 22797
3 Other officers 7 4153
  Total 496 54237

Source:- Jodhpur Master Plan—2023

i. Housing Scenario
Housing is an important sector which provides security to the people at one hand and at other hand employment opportunities in the construction sectors. The population of Jodhpur city as per 2011 census is 10,918 persons and 192494 households with 5.4 average household size within Municipal area in Jodhpur city. There are 17983 residential houses in Jodhpur city.
ii. Growth of Slums
High cost of urban land and lack of sufficient affordable low cost housing for the urban poor has resulted in the growth of slums. In the past there have not been adequate efforts on the part of Rajasthan Housing Board(RHB), Urban Improvement Trust(UIT) and Government of Rajasthan to provide sufficient low cost housing/ land for the urban poor. Non availability of housing to large number of shanty colonies with poor hygienic conditions.

Study shows that out of 217 slums in Jodhpur, 37 slums are fully & partially settled on forest land. Over the last two decades, Jodhpur has witnessed significant increase in its slum population. Majority of the population living in these slums are a migrant from the adjoining areas comes to Jodhpur in search of better livelihood and employment opportunities. The total population of the slums in Jodhpur is 2, 65, 443. The total numbers of households in slums are 46,364. The total numbers of houses are 43376 out of which 29845 (68.8%) houses are pucca houses, 8337 (19.2%) are semi pucca houses and remaining 5194 (12.0%) houses are Katcha houses. From the above analysis it is evident that there is a shortage of 2988 houses in slums. Details of housing profile in slum area are mentioned in table below.
Details of Slums
Total No. of Slums 217
Population 265443
Households 46364
Pucca Houses 29845
Semi Pucca Houses 8337
Katcha Houses 5194

6. Land use Analysis

i. Existing Land useo
Existing land use map showing physical existing development under various uses such as residential, commercial, public and semi-public, road network, nallah and other physical features like hills and rivers etc. is enclosed in the report. The urbanized area of the Jodhpur city was 25399.62 hectares in the year 2013). The area utilized under various categories of use in given below.
Existing Land use Distribution 2013
1 Resident 8943.84 59.13 35.22 45.50%
2 Commercial 285.43 1.89 1.12 2.3%
3 Industrial 2356.15 15.58 9.28 8.10%
4 Governmental/Non Government        
5 Recreational 251.55 1.66 0.99 12.14%
6 Public and Semi Public 1387.78 9.18 5.46 6.8%
7 Transportation 1679.84 11.11 6.61 10.12%
Total Developed Area 15124.64 100    
8 Reserved for Government 2862.65 11.27
9 Open Land 5371.49 1.66 0.99 12.14%
10 Forest Area 561.99 2.21
11 Hilly Area 1140.01 4.49
12 Recreational 251.55 21.15
5 Lakes 338.84 1.31
Total 10274.98 - - -
Urbanized Area 25399.62 100

Source :- Jodhpur Master Plan – 2031

It is Evident from above Table that the area under residential is about 59.13% of total developed area, the area under commercial use 1.89%, area under industrial use is 15.58% of total developed area. The remaining area under Government, public semipublic, recreational and transportation use. The spatial distribution of various land uses in 2013 has been shown in the generalized existing land use Map of Jodhpur city.
ii. Master Plan Jodhpur-2031
The Master Plan for Jodhpur was prepared for the horizon year 2031 which shows the proposed land uses for various purposes is prepared by the Town Planning department of the state Government in the year 2013. The Master plan is to remain in force up till 2031. The urbanized area is 1005553.38 hectares; developable area by 2031 is 77162.03 hectares and periphery control belt which presently is under agricultural use, where urban development activities are coming at show. The distribution of various land use distribution pattern of Master Plan 2031 is shown in table below.
Existing Land use Distribution 2013
S.No. Land Use Area in Hectares %of Developed Area % of Urban Area
1 Residential 41178.83 55.37 1.69
2 Commercial 1702.21 2.21 35.22
3 Industrial 14918.93 19.33 14.83
4 Mixed Land use 7292.47 9.45 7.25
5 Governmental/Non Government 456.37 0.59 0.45
6 Recreational 812.61 1.05 0.81
7 Transportation 7795.49 10.10 7.75
8 Public and Semi Public 3005.12 3.89 2.94
Total Developable Area 77162.03 100 -
9 Government reserved 4161.06 - 4.14
10 Forest 6114.29 - 6.08
11 Hills 5520.49 - 5.49
12 Water Body 7595.51 - 7.55
Total Urban Sable Area 100553.38 - 100.00

Key Observations:

  • The population of Jodhpur city is expected to be doubled by 2031.
  • The growth of population in Jodhpur is expected to increase the burden on existing urban Infrastructure service in the city.
  • Residential use of land shall be predominant use in Jodhpur.